|This page contains five narratives:
- The first is by an English doctor, Alexander Falconbridge, who
describes the treatment of newly arrived slaves in the West Indies.
- In the second narrative, Frederick Douglas describes the circumstances
that could lead to a slave being whipped.
- In the third narrative, Lewis Clark describes the implements his
mistress used to beat him.
- The fourth narrative consists of Nat Turner describing the slave revolt
- The fifth narrative is an account of Margaret Garner, a fugitive slave,
who killed her daughter rather than see her returned to slavery.
"VARIOUS DECEPTIONS ARE USED IN THE DISPOSAL OF SICK SLAVES"
Alexander Falconbridge describes the reaction of enslaved Africans to their sale.
When the ships arrive in the West Indies (the chief mart for this inhuman merchandize), the slaves are
disposed as I have before observed by different methods. Sometimes the mode of disposal is that of selling
them by what is termed a scramble, and a day is soon fixed for that purpose. Previously the sick or refuse
slaves, of which there are frequently many, are usually conveyed on shore and sold at a tavern, by vendue or
public auction. These in general are purchased...upon speculation, at so low a price as five or six dollars a
head. I was informed by a mulatto woman that she purchased a sick slave at Grenada, upon speculation, for
the small sum of one dollar, as the poor wretch was apparently dying of the flux. It seldom happens that any
who are carried ashore in the emaciated state to which they are generally reduced by that disorder long
survive after their landing. I once saw sixteen conveyed on shore and sold in the foregoing manner, the whole
of whom died before I left the island. Sometimes the captains march their slaves through the town at which
they intend to dispose of them, and then place them in rows where they are examined and purchased.
The mode of selling them by scramble having fallen under my observation the oftenest, I shall be more
particular in describing it. Being some years ago, at one of the islands in the West Indies, I was witness to a
sale by scramble, where about 250 Negroes were sold. Upon this occasion all the Negroes scrambled for
bear an equal price; which is agreed upon between the captains and the purchasers before the sale begins.
On a day appointed, the Negroes were landed and placed together in a large yard belonging to the merchants
to whom the ship was consigned. A s soon as the hour agreed on arrived, the doors of the yard were suddenly
thrown open and in rushed a considerable number of purchasers, with all the ferocity of brutes. Some instantly
seized such of the Negroes as they could conveniently lay hold of with their hands. Others being prepared with
several handkerchiefs tied together, encircled as many as they were able. While others, by means of a rope,
effected the same purpose. It is scarcely possible to describe the confusion of which this mode of selling is
productive. It likewise causes much animosity among the purchasers who not infrequently fall out and quarrel
with each other. The poor astonished Negroes were so terrified by these proceedings, that several of them,
through fear climbed over the walls of the courtyard and ran wild about the town, but were soon hunted down
Various deceptions are used in the disposal of sick slaves and many of these must excite in every humane
mind the liveliest sensations of horror. I have been well informed that a Liverpool captain boasted of his
having cheated some Jews by the following stratagem. A lot of slaves afflicted with the flux, being about to be
landed for sale, he directed the ship's surgeons to stop the anus of each of them with oakum. Thus prepared
they were landed and taken to the accustomed place of sale, where, being unable to stand but for a very short
time, they were usually permitted to sit. The buyers, when they examined them, oblige them to stand up in
order to see if there be any discharge; and when they do not perceive this appearance they consider it as a
symptom of recovery. In the present instance, such an appearance being prevented, the bargain was struck
and the slaves were accordingly sold. But it was not long before discovery ensued. The excruciating pain
which the prevention of a discharge of such an acrimonious nature occasioned, not being able to be borne by
the poor wretches, the temporary obstruction was removed and the deluded purchasers were speedily
convinced of the imposition.
Source: Alexander Falconbridge, An Account of the Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa (London, 1788).
"MATTERS FOR WHICH A SLAVE MAY BE WHIPPED"
Perhaps the nineteenth century's staunchest advocate of equal rights, Frederick Douglass was born into
slavery on Maryland's eastern shore in 1818, the son of a slave woman and an unknown white man. While
toiling as a ship's caulker, he taught himself to read. After he escaped from slavery at the age of 1820, he
became the abolitionist movement's most effective orator and published an influential anti- slavery
newspaper, The North Star. In this excerpt from one of his three autobiographies, he describes the
circumstances that prompted slaveowners to whip slaves.
A mere look, word, or motion,- - a mistake, accident, or want of power,- - are all matters for which a slave may
be whipped at any time. Does a slave look dissatisfied? It is said, he has the devil in him, and it must be
whipped out. Does he speak loudly when spoken to by his master? Then he is getting high- minded, and
should be taken down a button- hole lower. Does he forget to pull off his hat at the approach of a white
person? Then he is wanting in reverence, and should be whipped for it. Does he ever venture to vindicate his
conduct, when censured for it? Then he is guilty of impudence,- - one of the greatest crimes of which a slave
can be guilty. Does he ever venture to suggest a different mode of doing things from that pointed out by his
master? He is indeed presumptuous, and getting above himself....
Source: Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave (3rd. English ed., Leeds, 1846)
"HER INVENTION WAS WONDERFULLY QUICK"
As a slave child in Kentucky, Lewis Clarke was frequently whipped by his mistress. Here, he describes the
implements she used to punish him.
(My mistress's) instruments of torture were ordinarily the raw hide, or a bunch of hickory- sprouts seasoned in
the fire and tied together. But if these were not at hand, nothing came amiss. She could relish a beating with a
chair, the broom, tongs, shovel, shears, knife- handle, the heavy heel of her slipper, or a bunch of keys; her
zeal was so active in these barbarous inflictions, that her invention was wonderfully quick, and some way of
inflicting the requisite torture was soon found.
One instrument of torture is worthy of particular description. This was an oak club, a foot and a half in length,
and an inch and a half square. With this delicate weapon she would beat us upon the hands and upon the feet
until they were blistered. This instrument was carefully preserved for a period of four years. Every day, for that
time, I was compelled to see that hated tool of cruelty lying in the chair by my side. The least degree of
delinquency, either in not doing all the appointed work, or in look or behavior, was visited with a beating from
this oak club. That club will always be a prominent object in the picture of horrors of my life of more than twenty
years of bitter bondage....
Mrs. Banton, as is common among slave- holding women, seemed to hate and abuse me all the more,
because I had some of the blood of her father in my veins. There are no slaves that are so badly abused, as
those that are related to some of the women, or the children of their own husband; it seems as though they
never could hate these quite bad enough.
Source: Interesting Memoirs and Documents Relating to American Slavery, and the Glorious Struggle Now
Making for Complete Emancipation (London, 1846).
"THE LAST SHOULD BE FIRST"
In response to questions from a white lawyer named Thomas R. Gray, Nat Turner explains why he led his
revolt against slavery.
Sir- - You have asked me to give a history of the motives which induced me to undertake the late insurrection,
as you call it- - To do so I must go back to the days of my infancy....In my childhood a circumstance occurred
which made an indelible impression on my mind, and laid the groundwork of that enthusiasm, which has
terminated so fatally to many, both white and black, and for which I am about to atone at the gallows....Being at
play with other children, when three or four years old, I was telling them something, which my mother
overhearing, said it had happened before I was born...others being called on were greatly astonished...and
caused them to say in my hearing, I surely would be a prophet....
For two years (I) prayed continually, whenever my duty would permit- - and then again I had
(a)...revelation, which fully confirmed me in the impression that I was ordained for some great purpose, in the hands of the
About this time (around 1825) I had a vision- - and I saw white spirits and black spirits engaged in battle, and
the sun was darkened- - the thunder rolled in the Heavens, and blood flowed in streams....
And on the 12th of May, 1828, I heard a loud noise in the heavens, and the Spirit instantly appeared to me and
said the Serpent was loosened, and Christ had laid down the yoke he had borne for the sins of men, and that I
should take it on and fight against the Serpent, for the time was fast approaching when the first should be last
and the last should be first.
(Question) Do you not find yourself mistaken now?
(Answer) Was not Christ crucified? And by signs in the heavens that it would be made known to me when I
should commence the great work- - and until the first sign appeared, I should conceal if from the knowledge of
men- - And on the appearance of the sign (the eclipse of the sun last February), I should arise and prepare
myself, and slay my enemies with their own weapons. And immediately on the sign appearing in the heavens,
the seal was removed from my lips, and I communicated the great work laid out before me to do, to four in
whom I had the greatest confidence (Henry, Hark, Nelson, and Sam)- - It was intended by us to have begun
the work of death on the 4th of July last- - Many were the plans formed and rejected by us, and it affected my
mind to such a degree, that I fell sick, and the time passed without our coming to any determination how to
commence- - Still forming new schemes and rejecting them, when the sign appeared again, which
determined me not to wait longer.
Since the commencement of 1830, I had been living with Mr. Joseph Travis, who was to me a kind master,
and placed the greatest confidence in me: in fact, I had no cause to complain of his treatment of me. On
Saturday evening, the 20th of August, it was agreed between Henry, Hark, and myself, to prepare a dinner the
next day for the men we expected, and then to concert a plan, as we had not yet determined on any. Hark, on
the following morning, brought a pig, and Henry brandy, and being joined by Sam, Nelson, Will and Jack, they
prepared in the woods a dinner, where, about three o'clock, I joined them....
I saluted them on coming up, and asked Will how came he there, he answered, his life was worth no more
than others, and his liberty as dear to him. I asked him if he thought to obtain it? He said he would, or lose his
life. This was enough to put him in full confidence. Jack, I knew, was only a tool in the hands of Hark, it was
quickly agreed we should commence at home (Mr. J. Travis') on that night, and until we had armed and
equipped ourselves, and gathered sufficient force, neither age nor sex was to be spared (which was
invariably adhered to). We remained at the feast, until about two hours in the night, when we went to the house
and found Austin; they all went to the cider press and drank, except myself. On returning to the house Hark
went to the door with an axe, for the purpose of breaking it open, as we knew we were strong enough to
murder the family, if they were awakened by the noise; but reflecting that it might create an alarm in the
neighborhood, we determined to enter the house secretly, and murder them whilst sleeping. hark got a ladder
and set it against the chimney, on which I ascended, and hoisting a window, entered and came down stairs,
unbarred the door, and removed the guns from their places. It was then observed that I must spill the first
blood. On which, armed with a hatchet, and accompanied by Will, I entered my master's chamber, it being
dark, I could not give a death blow, the hatchet glanced from his head, he sprang from the bed and called his
wife, it was his last word, Will laid him dead, with a blow of his axe, and Mrs. Travis shared the same fate, as
she lay in bed. The murder of this family, five in number, was the work of a moment, not one of them awoke;
there was a little infant sleeping in a cradle, that was forgotten, until we had left the house and gone some
distance, when Henry and will returned and killed it; we got here, four guns that would shoot and several old
muskets, with a pound or two of powder. We remained some time at the barn, where we paraded; I formed
them in a line as soldiers, and...marched them off to Mr. Salthul Francis', about six hundred yards distant. Sam
and Will went to the door and knocked. Mr. Francis asked who was there, Sam replied it was him, and he had
a letter for him, on which he got up and came to the door; they immediately seized him, and dragging him out
a little from the door, he was dispatched by repeated blows on the head; there was no other white person in
the family. We started from there for Mrs. Reese's, maintaining the most perfect silence on our march, where
finding the door unlocked, we entered, and murdered Mrs. Reese in her bed, while sleeping; her son awoke,
but it was only to sleep the sleep of death, he had only time to say who is that, and he was no more. From Mrs.
Reese's we went to Mrs. Turner's, a mile distant, which we reached about sunrise, on Monday morning. Henry,
Austin, and Sam, went to the still, where, finding Mr. Peebles, Austin shot him, and the rest of us went to the
house; as we approached, the family discovered us, and shut the door. Vain hope! Will, with one stroke of his
axe opened it, and we entered and found Mrs. Turner and Mrs. Newsome in the middle of a room, almost
frightened to death. Will immediately killed Mrs. Turner, with one blow of his axe. I took Mrs. Newsome by the
hand, and with the sword I had when I was apprehended, I struck her several blows over the head, but not
being able to kill her, as the sword was dull. Will turning around and discovering it, dispatched her also. A
general destruction of property and search for money and ammunition, always succeeded the murders. By
this time my company amounted to fifteen, and nine men mounted, who started for Mrs. Whitehead's....As we
approached the house we discovered Mr. Richard Whitehead standing in the cotton patch, near the lane
fence; we called him over into the lane, and Will, the executioner, was near at hand, with his fatal axe, to send
him to an untimely grave....As I came around to the door I saw Will pulling Mrs. Whitehead out of the house,
and at the step he nearly severed her head from her body, with his broad axe. Miss Margaret, when I
discovered her, had concealed herself in the corner...on my approach she fled, but was soon overtaken, and
after repeated blows with a sword, I killed her by a blow on the head, with a fence rail....
'Twas my object to carry terror and devastation wherever we went....I sometimes got in sight in time to see
the work of death completed, viewed the mangled bodies as they lay, in silent satisfaction, and immediately
started in quest of other victims- - Having murdered Mrs. Waller and ten children, we started for Mr. William
Williams'- - having killed him and two little boys that were there; while engaged in this, Mrs. Williams fled and
got some distance from the house, but she was pursued, overtaken, and compelled to get up behind one of
the company, who brought her back, and after showing her the mangled body of her lifeless husband, she was
told to get down an lay by his side, where she was shot dead....
Our number amounted now to fifty or sixty, all mounted and armed with guns, axes, swords, and clubs....We
were met by a party of white men, who had pursued our blood- stained track....The white men, eighteen in
number, approached us in about one hundred yards, when one of them fired....I then ordered my men to fire
and rush them; the few remaining stood their ground until we approached within fifty yards, when they fired and
retreated....As I saw them re- loading their guns, and more coming up than I saw at first, and several of my
bravest men being wounded, the other became panick struck and squandered over the field; the white men
pursued and fired on us several times....
All deserted me but two, (Jacob and Nat,) we concealed ourselves in the woods until near night, when I sent
them in search of Henry, Sam, Nelson, and Hark, and directed them to rally all they could, at the place where
had had our dinner the Sunday before, where they would find me, and I accordingly returned there as soon as
it was dark and remained until Wednesday evening, when discovering white men riding around the place as
though they were looking for someone, and none of my men joining me, I concluded Jacob and Nat had been
taken, and compelled to betray me. On this I gave up all hope for the present; and on Thursday night after
having supplied myself with provisions from Mr. Travis' I scratched a hope under a pile of fence rails in a field,
where I concealed myself for six weeks, never leaving my hiding place but for a few minutes in the dead of
night to get water which was very near....I know not how long I might have led this life, if accident had not
betrayed me, a dog in the neighborhood passing by my hiding place one night while I was out, was attracted
by some meat I had in my cave, and crawled in and stole it, and was coming out just as I returned. A few
nights after, two Negroes having started to go hunting with the same dog, and passed that way, the dog came
again to the place, and having just gone out to walk about, discovered me and barked, on which thinking
myself discovered, I spoke to them to beg concealment. On making myself known they fled from me. Knowing
when they would betray me, I immediately left my hiding place, and was pursued almost incessantly until I was
taken a fortnight afterwards by Mr. Benjamin Phipps, in a little hole I had dug out with my sword, for the
purpose of concealment, under the top of a fallen tree.
Source: The Confessions of Nat Turner, the Leader of the Late Insurrection in Southampton, Va. (Baltimore,
"SHE WOULD KILL HERSELF...BEFORE SHE WOULD RETURN TO BONDAGE"
Margaret Garner, a fugitive slave from Kentucky, killed one of her children rather than permit her to be
returned to slavery. She drowned in a shipwreck as she was being brought back to slavery.
Perhaps no case that came under my notice, while engaged in aiding fugitive slaves, attracted more attention
and aroused deeper interest and sympathy than the case of Margaret Garner, the slave mother who killed her
child rather than see it taken back to slavery. This happened in the latter part of January, 1856. The Ohio River
was frozen over at the time, and the opportunity thus offered for escaping to a free State was embraced by a
number of slaves living in Kentucky, several miles back from the river. A party of seventeen, belonging to
different masters in the same neighborhood, made arrangements to escape together. There was snow on the
ground and the roads were smooth, so the plan of going to the river on a sled naturally suggested itself. The
time fixed for their flight was Sabbath night, and having managed to get a large sled and two good horses,
belonging to one of their masters, the party of seventeen crowded into the sled and started on their hazardous
journey in the latter part of the night. They drove the horses at full speed, and at daylight reached the River
below Covington, opposite Wester Row. They left the sled and horses here, and as quickly as possible
crossed the river on foot. It was now broad daylight, and people were beginning to pass about the streets and
the fugitives divided their company that they might not attract so much notice.
An old slave named Simon and his wife Mary, together with their son Robert and his wife Margaret Garner
and four children, made their way to the house of a colored man named Kite, who had formerly lived in their
neighborhood and had been purchased from slavery by his father, Joe Kite. They had to make several
inquiries in order to find Kite's house, which was below Mill Creek, in the lower part of the city. This afterward
led to their discovery; they had been seen by a number of persons on their way to Kite's, and were easily
traced by pursuers. The other nine fugitives were more fortunate. They made their way up town and found
friends who conducted them to safe hiding- places, where they remained until night. They were put on the
Underground Railroad, and went safely through to Canada....
In a few minutes...(Kite's) house was surrounded by pursuers- - the masters of the fugitives, with officers and a
posse of men. The door and windows were barred, and those inside refused to give admittance. The fugitives
were determined to fight, and to die, rather than to be taken back to slavery. Margaret, the mother of the four
children, declared that she would kill herself and her children before she would return to bondage. The slavemen were armed and fought bravely. The window was first battered down with a stick of wood, and one of the
deputy marshals attempted to enter, but a pistol shot from within made a flesh wound on his arm and caused
him to abandon the attempt. The pursuers then battered down the door with some timber and rushed in. The
husband of Margaret fired several shots, and wounded one of the officers, but was soon overpowered and
dragged out of the house. At this moment, Margaret Garner, seeing that their hopes of freedom were in vain,
seized a butcher knife that lay on the table, and with one stroke cut the throat of her little daughter, whom she
probably loved the best. She then attempted to take the life of the other children and to kill herself, but she was
overpowered and hampered before she could complete her desperate work. The whole party was then
arrested and lodged in jail. The trial lasted two weeks, drawing crowds to the courtroom every day....The counsel for the defense brought
witnesses to prove that the fugitives had been permitted to visit the city at various times previously. It was
claimed that Margaret Garner had been brought here by her owners a number of years before, to act as nurse
girl, and according to the law which liberated slaves who were brought into free States by the consent of their
masters, she had been free from that time, and her children, all of whom had been born since then- - following
the condition of the mother- - were likewise free.
The Commissioner decided that a voluntary return to slavery, after a visit to a free State, re-attached the
conditions of slavery, and that the fugitives were legally slaves at the time of their escape....
But in spite of touching appeals, of eloquent pleadings, the Commissioner remanded the fugitives back to
slavery. He said that it was not a question of feeling to be decided by the chance current of his sympathies;
the law of Kentucky and the United States made it a question of property.
Source: Levi Coffin, Reminiscences (Cincinnati, 1876).
These narratives were edited by Steven Mintz, University of Houston
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