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Alphabetical Listing and Definition of Elected Positions 

Alderman
Not every city, town, township, or municipality uses the term alderman. Each alderman represents a geographical district, sometimes referred to as a ward, that is a part of the city or town or township. As a group, they form the legislative body of the city in which they are elected.

Assemblyman
These officials belong to the lower level of a state legislature. They represent a geographical district that includes a number of towns, townships, cities, villages, or hamlets.

Congressman, Congressperson, Congresswoman
There are 435 congressional members. The number of representatives each state has depends upon that state's population. The larger the state's  population, the more representatives it has allocated to it. Thus, for example, the state of New York has more representatives than Wyoming and Rhode Island. The representatives can come from any political party and there does not have to be an equal number of republicans, democrats, or members of any other political party. A state can gain or lose representatives based on an increase or decrease in its population.

The Congress, also known as the House of Representatives, is one half of what is referred to as the bicameral legislature. The other half is the Senate. The idea of having such a form of representation came from the early founders observing how the Iroquois Nation (one of the many groups of the country's indigenous people that are often referred to as Native Americans and Indians) governed themselves and copying the same structure for the United States.

Councilman, councilperson, councilwoman
members of a city's or town's council are members of the municipality's highest governing body. Depending upon the particular city's charter, the mayor can have more power than the council, or less. The term "strong council, weak mayor" refers to charters that stipulate that the mayor cannot make many legislative decisions without approval from the council.

District leader
Many towns and cities are divided into areas that are subdivisions of a ward or council district. The district leader works closely with the council member of the area and acts as a conduit for information between the higher elected official and the officials' constituents. The district leader has no voting power and does not participate in the process of passing or rejecting bills.

Governor
The highest elected official in a state, the governor is responsible for keeping abreast of all affairs in the state and works with the state legislature in determining the states budget and laws. Governors do not partake in the process of determining laws that affect the nation, although they do, keep in contact with people that do in order to insure that what is determined nationally does not have a negative effect on their state.

Mayor
The chief executive for a municipality, the mayor helps determine the municipality's laws and all other affairs that affects the constituents. 

President
The chief executive for the nation.

Sheriff
The chief law enforcement official of a municipality or county.

State Senator
A member of the upper house in a state legislature.
The state senator has no jurisdiction outside his or her state.

United States Senator
A member of the upper house of the nations bicameral legislature. Each state is allowed to have two Senators so there are 100 in total. There does not have to be equal representation according to political party affiliation. The United States Senators have state and national responsibility. 

The Senate is one half of what is referred to as the bicameral legislature. The other half is the Congress. The idea of having such a form of representation came from the early founders observing how the Iroquois Nation (one of the many groups of the country's indigenous people that are often referred to as Native Americans and Indians) governed themselves and copying the same structure for the United States.

Vice-President
Assistant to the president.